This course guide offers recommended materials required for researching the term paper for this course.
Consult specialized online encyclopedias or dictionaries to read overviews of your topic and become familiar with subject-specific language:
Consult Subject Guides:
If you need help:
Although many of the library's databases provide access to all types of sources, your instructor will want you to use quality, peer-reviewed, academic literature found in journals.
These journals (also known as serials or periodicals) publish the world's most recent peer-reviewed research in all disciplines, whereas popular 'magazines' are primarily designed to entertain as well as inform the general public for commercial profit.
Getting to know the differences between these sources is important! If you are unsure if a journal is peer reviewed, check Ulrichsweb. It is the definitive source that lets you know what type of journal (serial, magazine, periodical) you are reading by 'content type'.
Bibliometrics are used to rank academic journals. These rankings are important for things such as building library collections, or academic career advancement.
To learn more, check out the following:
To find journal articles, you have three options:
1. Search Omni
- type in the keywords of your topic, note: Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) must be in capital letters to be recognized by Omni
- this tool searches most of the library's databases, simultaneously, for all types of material, including: journal articles, books/e-books, newspapers, magazines,videos, reports, etc.
- each search can return many results, so you must use the filters to refine your search results
- use the Advanced Search and narrow by Subject terms (controlled vocabulary)
- remember to login first if you are searching from off-campus
- Omni Search Tips
2. Search specialized databases for Geography
- these databases are focused on various areas of geographical research and contain citations or full text links to journal articles, books, conference proceedings, reports, and dissertations
- you will find more precise articles with fewer results to browse
Recommended databases for journal articles/books include:
3. Use a search engine
- Google Scholar (via the library's web site) - Google Scholar is a large search engine that searches information on the web and provides links to full-text articles to which the CU Library subscribes, or to articles made freely available by the publisher. It also provides articles from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and scholarly articles posted on the web.
- Although it is easy to use and includes 'cited by' and ranking features, it does not provide full text without a library subscription and the coverage is uneven. There is no 'filter option' for just scholarly publications and very few options to limit or narrow your search results.
Note: Note: If the library does not have what you need, you can order electronic material from other libraries through RACER but you need to register before you can start using it.
Step by step Searching Instructions on Omni
1. Identify the main concepts of your research topic and brainstorm possible keywords. Create a list.
2. Use Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) to combine concepts and enhance your search. They must be in capital letters to be recognized by Omni. By using AND, you are narrowing your search and by using OR to connect synonyms, you are expanding your search and using NOT excludes a specific word. Here are a few sample searches:
- "temperature extremes" AND predictability --> quotation marks keeps phrases together; AND narrows your search
- pollution OR deforestation --> OR expands your search
- ozone AND remote sensing NOT depletion --> NOT excludes words
- Antarctic AND (ozone layer OR ozonosphere) --> parentheses determines the order of the search. Information within parentheses is read first and the terms outside are read next.
3. Make sure to enclose your search for phrases with quotation marks. Example: "climate change"
4. Use the truncation (or stemming, wildcarding) technique to broaden your search. The asterisk * at the end of a root word will search various word endings. Example: environment* = environments, environmental, environmentalist, environmentalism. The question mark ? will perform a single wildcard search. For example, type minerali?ation to find mineralization or mineralisation.
5. Begin searching for material with the library's main search box, Omni to find journal articles, books and other sources on your topic. Remember to filter each new search by content type.
6. Here are the filters to use for finding peer reviewed journals:
- Scholarly & Peer review
- Journal article
There are many free citation management systems available. The library provides support in the use of some of these tools, but feel free to try any others on your own. All of them provide the same basic functions such as:
- ability to collect, save, organize your references and pdf documents
- ability to search your own collection and add notes
- ability to create bibliographies in different citation styles such as APA, MLA, etc.
- ability to work with Word so you can write, include citations, and produce your final bibliography
- ability to share/collaborate
If you have questions and want a consultation, check out the Citation Management web page.
- A literature review is a systematic review of published literature on a specific topic or research question. The review should analyze (and not just summarize) the scholarly writings of your topic or research question.
- There are many different types of literature reviews. For more information, consult the library's Conducting a Literature Review web guide.
- Contact Writing Services for help with the overall academic writing process.
- Citing your Sources provides an overview of the major academic citation styles.
- For your assignments and research essay in this course, you must use the Climatic Change citation style.
- The following was adapted from the Instructions for Authors for the journal, Climatic Change
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or end notes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Order multi-author publications of the same first author alphabetically with respect to second, third, etc. author. Publications of exactly the same author(s) must be ordered chronologically. See examples below:
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi-org.proxy.library.carleton.ca/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi-org.proxy.library.carleton.ca/10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Note: Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see the International Identifier for Serials web page.