IEEE Citation Style Resources
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a reference style used in electronics, engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology and other technical fields. IEEE helps the reader easily identify the information sources used in a report.
- IEEE Reference Guide (Information on citing materials and in-text citations).
- You can access IEEE Editorial Style Manual For Authors.
- A short overview of IEEE citation guidelines i.
- The library provides access to Tools for IEEE Authors. You will need to sign into your library account
- IEEE Formatting and Style Guide from OWL Purdue
- IEEE Mathematics Guide
- 2021 IEEE SA Standards Style Manual
In-Text Citations and Sample Reference List
In-text citations are used to inform the reader when your work has been influenced by someone else’s work.
In text citations should be used...
- When paraphrasing someone else's work
- When directly quoting someone else's work
In IEEE, in-text citations use a number in square brackets to indicate the relevant reference.
- Use a number in square brackets for each reference citation, eg.  or 
- Place the citation directly after the information you wish to cite
- Place reference numbers in square brackets in the same line as the text, before punctuation, and with a space before the bracket
- Number citations in the order they appear within your work
- Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references
Note: In-text citations do not need to include the author’s name(s), pages used, or date of publication. Additionally, there is no distinction made between print and electronic references within in-text citations.
“Smith  states that…”
“... will be further addressed .”
According to IEEE citation guidelines, the preferred method to cite more than one reference at a time is to list each reference in its own brackets.
“Studies , ,  have proposed...”
Note: As long as you are consistent, it is also acceptable to cite multiple references within a bracket.
“Studies [5,11, 20] have proposed…”
In both cases, reference numbers should be separated by a comma (eg. [4, 23, 6] or , , ), or a dash to indicate a range (eg. [4-11] or  - ).
Once you have cited a reference in-text, use the same reference number throughout the document for any subsequent citations.
When repeating a citation, do not use ibid. or op. cit.
Although not required, if you wish to provide the reader with more information, follow the format below.
[1, see figure 12]
[4, pp. 45-90]
Sample Reference List Page Formatting Guidelines
- Place your reference list at the end of your work
- Begin the reference list on a new page
- Use the title "References" and center it in the page
- Order references in the numerical order they appear in-text
- Assign only one reference per number
- Place reference numbers flush left in square brackets
- Entries must be single spaced, with a double space between each
- Use a hanging indent for each reference to align the numerical sequence
Sample Reference List
IEEE Canada, "About," IEEE Canada. [Website]. Available: https://www.ieee.ca/en/about/. [Accessed Feb. 14, 2019].
H. Ammari et al., “Integral representation of solutions to the full maxwell equations,” in Mathematical and computational methods in photonics and phononics. Providence, RH: American Mathematical Society, 2018, ch. 2, sec. 2.14, pp. 120-140.
A. Chakrabarti, N. Sharma, and V. E. Balas, Eds., Advances in computing applications. Singapore: Springer, 2016 [E-book]. Available: Scholars Portal Books.
T. Keane, “Partial differential equations versus cellular automata for modeling combat,” Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 191-204, Oct. 2011. [Online]. Available: Sage Journals, https://www.journals.sagepub.com. [Accessed Jan 28, 2019].
A. Shah, “The critical need for 5G cellular service,” asme.org, Feb. 1, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/technology-and-society/we-need-5g-cellular-service. [Accessed: Feb. 11, 2019].
European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guide for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI-TR 101, 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org. [Accessed: Nov. 12, 2007].
D. E. Lehman, “Seismic performance of well-confined concrete bridge columns,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1998. [Online] Available: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. [Accessed Jan. 28, 2019].
OpenOffice, OpenOffice.org User Guide for Version 2.x. (2005). [PDF]. Apache Open Office. Available: https://www.openoffice.org/documentation/manuals/OOo2.x/user_guide2_draft.pdf. [Accessed Feb. 14, 2019].