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The MacOdrum Library is located on the unceded territories of the Algonquin nation. This guide provides information for students, faculty, report writers, and legal professionals who write and/or work with Gladue reports.
What is a Gladue report?
Gladue reports are part of an attempt to address the over-representation of people of Aboriginal background in the criminal justice system. The name comes from a 1999 Supreme Court of Canada decision, R. v. Gladue. A Gladue report will outline some background information about the offender before a court, and is intended to inform a judge's decision whenever a possible loss of liberty is at stake. This includes bail hearings, sentencing, parole, and Long Term Supervision Orders.
Native Women's Association of Canada: What is Gladue?
- Criminal Code Section 718.2 - the Gladue decision was based on:
- (e) all available sanctions, other than imprisonment, that are reasonable in the circumstances and consistent with the harm done to victims or to the community should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders.
- R. v. Gladue (1999)
- R. v. Wells (2000)
- R. v. Ipeelee (2012)
Aboriginal sentencing Gladue principles: In a nutshell
A Gladue report will need information on the early life and family history of the person before the court. These resources can help you find information on genealogy, the history of residential schools, and maps or histories of a community or First Nation.
Open access resources
These resources are freely available, i.e., they do not require the user to be a student, faculty or staff member of Carleton University.
Residential schools information (institutional)
- Residential School records (Library and Archives Canada)
- Anglican Church of Canada
- Indian Residential Schools (Catholic Voices)
- National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (University of Manitoba)
- The children remembered: A project of the United Church of Canada
- First Nation Profiles Interactive Map and Inuit communities in Nunavut Maps hosted by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.
- Languagegeek Maps
On-campus and digital resources
- A concise history of Canada's First Nations
- Handbook of North American Indians (Reserves desk, Carleton University Library)
- Indigenous Studies subject guide
The frequency of use of Gladue reports varies across legal jurisdictions, as does the availability of healing lodges and other alternatives to incarceration.
- Correctional Service Canada Healing Lodges
- Gladue Practices in the Provinces and Territories (pdf), a Justice Canada report.
- Mi'kmaq Confederacy of PEI has an Aboriginal Justice program that can create Gladue reports.
- Aboriginal Legal Services (Toronto)
- Gladue Database (pdf) from the Nishnawbe-Aski Legal Services Corporation
- Gladue Handbook (pdf) prepared by the Faculty of Law at the University of Manitoba.
- Indigenous Law Centre at the University of Saskatchewan
- Native Counselling Society of Alberta
- Siksika Nation Justice Department hosts a circuit court.
- B,C, First Nations Justice Council - Gladue Services
- Gladue Report Training provided by the Indigenous Perspectives Society.
- Aboriginal Legal Aid in BC - Gladue rights
- Yukon Gladue Research & Resource Identification Project (pdf) from the Yukon Law Society.
The writer of a Gladue report will often have to interview friends, family, or other people connected to the person before the court. These are resources related to interview skills.
- Trauma Informed Practice Guide prepared by the Centre of Excellence for Women's Health in B.C.
- Choices: Interviewing and counselling skills for Canadians
- The Sage handbook of interview research
Note: The writer will have to obtain informed consent from the interviewees.