Reference List

Arrange all of your sources alphabetically by author’s last name in a reference list at the end of your essay or paper. Use double spacing with a hanging indent for all references unless your professor says otherwise. Provide complete and consistent references including author, date, title, and the relevant publication information for the format of the work.

Digital sources are full text sources that are published online or in an electronic format. Print sources are those published in a printed publication like a library book. Note that if you print out an online journal article to read it's still a digital publication.

This guide provides information on how to reference the most common formats. For other works, consult the official APA Publication Manual. Some sources may not fit any of the formats given here or in the manual. Pick the most similar format and make adjustments as needed to ensure your research sources are recoverable to other readers.

Content last reviewed: August 2, 2018