Select a digital publication type to see the APA style format and an example reference.
- Journal articles
- Encyclopedia articles
- Newspaper articles
- Conference and meeting proceedings
- Non-periodical internet documents or reports
- Lecture slides and handouts from CULearn
If an e-book is accessed using an e-reader (e.g. Kindle), identify which version of the book was used in square brackets after the title of the book, without italics. For example, Title [Kindle version]. When using a database like MyiLibrary or ebrary, the URL in the e-book reference should be the e-book database home page.
Author last name, A. A. (Year of publication). Title [E-reader version if applicable]. DOI or URL.
Emelyanov, E. M. (2005) Barrier zones in the ocean [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com
Adams, B. (2004). The theory of social revolutions. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=44092
The volume number for a journal must be included in the reference. Only include the issue number when pagination for the journal restarts at 1 with each issue.
Author last name, A. A. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue if applicable), pages. DOI or URL.
Sugarman, P., & Oakley, C. (2012) The evolution of secure and forensic care. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 23, 279-284. doi:10.1080/14789949.2012.692094
Ibrahim, S., Krishnamoorthy, B., & Vixie, K. (2013) Simplicial flat norm with scale. Journal of Computational Geometry, 4, 133–159. Retrieved from http://jocg.org/index.php/jocg
Article with author
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Aritlce title. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (edition). DOI or URL.
Mischel, W. (2015). Psychology. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/science/psychology
Article with no author
Article title. (Year of publication). In Title of encyclopedia (edition). DOI or URL.
Quasar. (2012). In I. Ridpath (Ed.), A dictionary of astronomy (2nd rev. ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199609055.001.0001...
Author last name, A. A. (Year, month and day of publication). Article title. Newspaper Title. DOI or URL.
Mott, M. (2005, June 3). Soothing the noisy beast: Dogs bark less when played calming classical music. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com
Article with no author
The psychology of sacrifice. (2009, May 1). The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from www.theglobeandmail.com.
Author last name, A. A. (Year of production). Title. (Doctoral or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order no.)
Turton, J. (2007). The fiction and fictionalising of William Carleton. (Doctoral thesis). Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. (U503133)
See Section 7.04 of the APA style guide for referencing a variety of conference and meeting proceedings.
Author last name, A. A. (Year, month and day of publication). Title of website. DOI or URL.
Paiz, J. M., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K. Anderson, M., . . . Keck, R. (2013, March 1). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01
Author last name, A. A. or Organization Name. (Year of publication). Title of the document. DOI or URL.
Carleton University Library. (2015). Using APA style. Retrieved from https://www.library.carleton.ca/help/apa-citation-style
Author last name, A. A. (Year, month and day of publication). Title of blog. [Web log comment]. DOI or URL.
Becker, D. (2013, September 20). Comma usage and compound predicates. [Web log entry]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/09/comma-usage-and-compound-predi...
Author last name, A. A. (Year of production). Title [File format]. Retrieved from CULearn.
Brown, P. (2015). Lecture 2: How to cite in APA [Power point slides]. Retrieved from CULearn.