Citation Components


The author is the last name(s) of the individual(s) or the name of the organization which produced the work, regardless of format. Abbreviations for an organization can be included in parentheses, or square brackets within a parenthetical citation, the first time you cite the source, and used alone in later citations.

Multiple authors

When citing works with multiple authors, format their names as shown in the citation examples. Note that “and” is used when listing authors in text, while an ampersand “&” is used inside parentheses.

Unknown authors

If the work states that the author is “Anonymous” treat that as the author’s name. If an author is unknown, use the main title (without subtitle) to identify the work. Titles of books, periodicals, brochures and reports should be written in italics. Titles of articles or chapters should be enclosed in quotation marks.


This is the year of publication or production of the work. If the publication year is unknown, use the abbreviation for no date, “n.d.”.

Page or paragraph

The page or paragraph numbers where the reference can be found should be included whenever possible, even when paraphrasing. For paginated works, use the formatting “p. #”, or “pp. #-#” for multiple pages.

For works without page numbers use “para. #” to denote paragraph numbers, and include section headings when available.

Content last reviewed: August 2, 2018