Citation Examples

One author

One author stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, para. 9), but did not offer an explanation as to why. She claimed that citation guides can improve student citations (para. 12).

Organization with abbreviation

Write the full name of the organization the first time it appears, and indicate the abbreviation that will be used in later citations.

1st citation

The American Psychological Association (APA, 2010)

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010)

Subsequent citations

(APA, 2010)

Two authors

Include both names every time the work is cited.

A recent exploratory study uncovered several examples of this problem (Smith & Jones, n.d., p. 153).

Three to five authors

Include all authors for the first citation only; for additional citations cite the first author along with “et al.”

1st citation

Olsen, Smith, Jones, and Hartholt (2007) proved that… (pp. 146-150).

Subsequent citations

Olsen et al. (2007) also showed that “academic writing occurs in universities” (p. 5).

Six or more authors

Cite the first author and follow with “et al.”

Fleury et al. (2005) explained that… (p. 99).

No author

(The consequences of modernity, 1990).

This article will discuss some of the “failings of Anthony Gidden” (“Anthony Giddens as adversary of class analysis,” 2007, para. 1).

Content last reviewed: August 2, 2018