Citation Formatting

The format of an in-text citation will depend on whether you use the author's name in the text of your sentence. If the author’s name is mentioned in the same sentence as the citation, the date should immediately follow the author’s name, while the pages should be given after the quotation or paraphrased information. When repeatedly using the same source in one paragraph, use the full citation for the first mention and use only the page number for subsequent citations.

Direct quote

A page number or location should always be included for a direct quote.

Author not named in text

Studies show “quote” (Author, Date, p. #).

Author named in text

Author (Date) states, “quote” (p. #).

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing a sentence or paragraph, include a page number or location for the information within your source. If you are paraphrasing an entire journal article or work, the page number can often be omitted.

Author not named in text

Studies show a result (Author, Date, p. #).

Author named in text

Author (Date) reports a result (p. #).

Content last reviewed: August 2, 2018