Citation Formatting: Notes

 

Indentation

Indent the first line of the footnote/endnote 0.5” or 1.27 cm. Single space each note.

Repeated use of the same source 

Use either a short version of the citation or ibid., depending upon when the source is cited. Ibid. usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It takes the place of the name(s) of the author(s) or editor(s), the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. 
 
If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical to the preceding reference:    
       2. Ibid.
 
If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical to the original citation but appears on a different page and there are no intervening references, use ibid and the number of the page where the source originally appeared:
        2.  Ibid, 68.

When different sources are cited between the first and second reference for a given source, use the short form for the second reference of that source:

A book
       12. Sheehan, Bright Shining Lie, 425.

An article
       13. Ansen, “Spielberg’s Obsession,” 116.

Superscript numbers in text

A superscript number is added to a sentence (often at the end) to indicate or reference a footnote/endnote. For example:

The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.1
 

Content last updated: July 17, 2020