Citing Your Sources

Why do we cite our sources?

  • To give credit to the author(s) of the original ideas or works that we use in our research.
  • To make it easy for anyone reading our work to find the sources that we have used.

Academic citation styles

The following are online resources for major academic styles. Copies of the major official style manuals are at the Research Help Desk and help is also available at the Writing Services.

Remember:  Always ask your instructor which citation style and edition of the relevant style guide to use.

APA (American Psychological Assocation, 6th Edition)

Please note, APA has recently released its 7th Edition. This guide pertains to the 6th. For a concise guide to notable changes in editions please click here


Other Chicago style guides

CSE (Council of Science Editors)

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) ​

MLA (Modern Languages Association)

Uniform Legal Style (McGill)

Departmental style guides

Some departments at Carleton have their own style guides, which are usually based on another common style (e.g., APA or MLA). Check with your professors to find out if you must use a departmental style.

Professional association style guides

Citing data, statistics, maps and government information

Guides in French

Other resources

Academic integrity

The Carleton University Academic Integrity policy defines academic integrity as follows:

"Sound scholarship rests on a commitment to a code of academic integrity that stresses principles of honesty, trust, respect, fairness and responsibility. The university demands integrity of scholarship from all of its members including students. The quality and integrity of academic work is paramount in achieving student success."

You must properly acknowledge your sources of information by citing them. If you do not cite your sources, you may be accused of violating academic integrity. Examples of actions that violate academic integrity include plagiarism and cheating.

Test your knowledgeTake the academic integrity quiz and check your answers.

Want to read more or watch a video? 

Content last reviewed: August 2, 2018