In-Text Citations

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When to use in-text citations

In-text citations are used to inform the reader when your work has been influenced by someone else’s work.

In-text citations should be used...

  1. When paraphrasing someone else's work
  2. When directly quoting someone else's work

In-text citations should appear next to the information to which it refers. 

Three systems exist within CSE style citation: Name-Year, Citation-Sequence, and Citation-Name.

Use the system most commonly used in your discipline. If you are unsure of which system to use, consult your course instructor.

Name-Year

  • Provide the author’s surname and year of publication within brackets (e.g. (Surname YYYY) )
  • Place the in-text citation before punctuation

Examples

Single author

"... as shown in the study (Smith 2005)."

"Reports (Johnson 2012) have revealed..."

Two authors

"... as shown in the study (Smith and Jones 2005)."

"Reports (Johnson and Taylor 2012) have revealed..."

More than two authors

"... as shown in the study (Smith et al. 2005)."

"Reports (Johnson et al. 2012) have revealed..."

Works by the same author in different years

"Recent studies (Stinson 2007, 2009) have provided a basis of research..."

Multiple references at once

"Later studies (Yang 2004; Chester et al. 2004) identified..."

"... of which results have been confirmed (Sharma 2009; Lester 2010)."

Citation-Sequence 

  • Use a superscript number (e.g. 1) to refer to the original source
  • Numbers are assigned in order of appearance in the text
  • Use the same number in each subsequent citation of said source 

Examples

"... as shown in the study 4"

"Reports 2 have revealed..."

Multiple citations at once

"... as shown in studies 4,6,8."

Citation-Name

  • Use a superscript number (e.g. 1) to refer to the original source
  • Numbers are assigned once the alphabetical reference list is assembled
  • Once a number has been assigned, the same number is used throughout the document

Examples:

"... as shown in the study 4"

"Reports 2 have revealed..."

Multiple citations at once

"... as shown in studies 4,6,8."

Content last reviewed: March 14, 2019