Reference List

Include a reference list of all cited sources at the end of your report. References must be ordered numerically in order of citation, not alphabetically.  

Formatting your reference list

  • Place your reference list at the end of your document
  • Begin the reference list on a new page with the title "References" centered in the page
  • List references in numerical order, and in the order they appear in text
  • Only include reference which you have cited in your text

See the sample reference list

Abbreviations

Abbreviate all journal titles in your reference list. Consult the NLM Catalog for style of abbreviations.

For other commonly used abbreviations such as country codes, states, and provinces, consult the Appendix section of Citing Medicine, 2nd Ed

This guide is divided by source format, as all punctuation, dates, and page numbers depend on the type of reference cited (i.e. Book, journal, e-book, thesis, etc). Each section contains basic guidelines and citation examples. 

Select the format you wish to cite from the list below.

Content last reviewed: February 20, 2019