On this page
- Basic Guidelines for Citing Electronic Content
- Citation Examples
For more recent examples of electronic content citation, see NLM-NIH Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Article: Electronic Materials
- Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (e.g. Smith JD)
- List names in the order they appear in the text
- Separate each author name by a comma and a space
Note: If there is no author available, simply omit the author and start the citation with the title of the page.
- Reproduce the title of a webpage as closely as possible to the wording on the screen
- Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle
- Place the word “Internet” in square brackets following the title
Place of publication
- Place is defined as the city where the homepage is published
- For U.S and Canadian cities, include the abbreviated state or province in the place of conference and place of publication (e.g. Ottawa (ON), Denver (CO) )
- For cities outside the U.S. and Canada, include the country name or country code. (I.e: Malaga (ES) or Malaga (Spain) )
- A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the homepage
- Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the homepage or opening screens
Date of Publication
- Always give the year of publication
- Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year. E.g. 2008 Jan
- Abbreviate months to the first three letters (e.g. January becomes Jan)
Date of update/revision
- Webpages are frequently updates or revised after publication dates or copyright dates
- In square brackets, use whatever word for update or revision which is provided (i.e. updated, modified) and include the year of update/revision (e.g. [updated 2008 Jan 6] or [revised 2008 Jan 6])
Date of citation
- Include the date the webpage was seen
- Use the following format: YYYY MM DD
- Place the date of citation after the date of update/revision, within the same bracket. E.g. [updated 2008 Jan 6; cited 2015 May 5]
Location (When no page numbers are available)
- Give location as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the part, whichever is most practical; precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 15 screens]
- Use the word "about" before the length indicator when the number is calculated.
- Use the phrase “Available from” followed by a colon and a space
- Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) it is entirety; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
- End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation
1. Webpage.com [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication; [updated YYYY MMM DD; cited YYYY MMM DD]. Available: URL
2. oicr.on.ca [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Ontario Institute for Cancer Research; c2019 [cited 2019 Mar 1]. Available from: https://www.oicr.on.ca/
3. Title of homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication of homepage. Title of part; Date of publication of part [updated YYYY MMM DD; cited YYYY MMM DD]; [Location or pagination of part]. Available: URL.
4. U.S. National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): NIH-NLM; 1993. History of Medicine; 1998 [updated 2019 Feb 22; cited 2019 Mar 7]; [about 2 screens]. Available: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/
5. Author or organization. Title of blog [Internet]. Date of publication [updated YYYY MMM DD; cited YYYY MMM DD]. Available from: URL
6. Ottawa Public Health. Ottawa public health blog [Internet]. c2019 - [cited 2019 Mar 7]. Available from: http://www.ottawapublichealth.ca/Modules/News/BlogSearch.aspx?feedId=45d...
7. Author of contribution. Title of contribution. Date of publication of contribution [cited YYYY MMM DD]. In: Author or editor of blog. Title of blog [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication - [extent of contribution]. Available from: URL
8. Schammel J. Failure in medicine: the greatest teacher. 2018 Nov 8 [cited 2019 Mar 7]. In: University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville. Transforming medical school [Internet]. Greenville (SC): University of South Carolina. c2014- [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://transformingmedschool.com/2018/11/07/failure-in-medicine-the-grea...
9. Database Name [Internet] Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication [Updated YYYY MM DD; cited YYYY MMM DD]; Available from: URL doi: if available
1. Drug Product Database [Internet] Ottawa (ON): Health Canada. c2010 [updated 2015 Jun 18; cited 2019 Mar 11]; Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/dr...
Software on the Internet
2. Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Publisher: Title of software. Version no. [software]. Date of publication [cited YYYY MMM DD]. Availalbe from: URL
3. Hayes B, Tesar B, Zurow K. OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software. Version 2.3.2 [software]. 2013 Jan 14 [cited 2015 Feb 14]. Available from: https://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/.