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- Basic Guidelines for Citing Journals and E-Journals
- Citation Examples
- Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (e.g. Smith JD)
- List names in the order they appear in text
- List all authors up to 6. For more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors followed by “et al.”
Separate each author name by a comma and a space
- Enter the title of an article as it appears in the publication
- Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
- Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless other punctuation is already present
- Abbreviate journal titles according to NLM catalogue
- Capitalize all remaining title words and abbreviations
Date of publication
- Include the year, month, and day of publication (e.g. 2008 Mar 7)
- Abbreviate months to first three letters (January becomes Jan, March becomes Mar)
- Include the inclusive page numbers on which the article appears
- Abbreviate page numbers as such: p. 156-9 instead of 156-159
1.Author AA. Title of article. Abbrev. Journal. Year Abbrev. Month;Vol.(Issue):Page numbers.
2. Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.
- List the first six authors, follow by "et al.".
3. Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD, Author EE, Author FF, et al. Title of article. Abbrev. Journal Title. Date of publication;Volume(Issue):Page numbers.
4. Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Jun;200(6):869-75.
Note: This format can also be used for charts, graphs, photographs, etc.
5. Author AA. Title of article. Abbrev. Journal. Year Abbrev. Month;Vol.(Issue):Page numbers. Table/Figure number, table/figure caption; p. number.
6. Wood RH, Gardner RE, Ferachi KA, King C, Ermolao A, Cherry KE, Cress ME,Jazwinski SM. Physical function and quality of life in older adults: sex differences. South Med J. 2005 May;98(5):504-12. Figure 2a, Physical function vs. SF-36 PCS in women; p. 510.
7. Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Abbreviated title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication [cited YYYY MMM DD];volume(issue):page numbers. Available from: URL doi: (If Available)
8. Skipper A. How should physicians counsel patients who live in food deserts?. AMA J Ethics [Internet]. 2018 Oct [cited 2019 Mar 1];20(10):E918-23. Available from: https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/how-should-physicians-couns... doi: 10.1001/amajethics.2018.918.