Writing and Citing


  • Contact Writing Services for help with the overall academic writing process.
  • Citing your Sources provides an overview of the major academic citation styles. 
  • For your assignments and research essay in this course, you must use the Climatic Change citation style.
  • The following was adapted from the Instructions for Authors for the journal, Climatic Change

Reference List

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or end notes as a substitute for a reference list.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Order multi-author publications of the same first author alphabetically with respect to second, third, etc. author. Publications of exactly the same author(s) must be ordered chronologically. See examples below:

Journal article

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi-org.proxy.library.carleton.ca/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8

Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329

Article by DOI

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi-org.proxy.library.carleton.ca/10.1007/s001090000086


South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

Book chapter

Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Online document

Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007


Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Note: Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see the International Identifier for Serials web page.

Content last reviewed: February 1, 2021