1. Release of Information. "Information can be a powerful tool. People act on the basis of the information available to them. By giving them specific information, it may be possible to influence their behaviour."
2. Capacity building. "Capacity building increases the ability of people or organizations to do things that advance policy objectives. It goes beyond providing information to include transferring to them the means for developing their ability."
3. Economic instruments (taxes, fees, duties, public expenditures)
4. Rules (laws and regulations)
Departments/agencies and public inquiries, task forces, etc.
- Government departments undertake research, e.g. Employment and Social Development Canada
- The Canada School of Public Service analyzes implementation e.g., Policy Development Implementation in Complex Files: Lessons from the National Homelessness Initiative
Note: Government of Canada has a web archive but is no longer maintaining it. Some of its sites and some provincial sites are available at the Internet Archive in the United States - need to know root url e.g. Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services - www.mcss.gov.on.ca
Consultants to the federal government can be identified through their contracts and then their websites can be located - Privy Council Office 2010-11 3d quarter - 2010-10-26 e.g., Association for Canadian Studies
- Public Finance
- Auditors can give useful insights into programmes, which can complement the reviews undertaken by departments and/or agencies
Rules (laws and regulations)
- Equality and Inclusion
- Find Bills and Statutes
- How a Government Bill Becomes Law - Canada
- How a Government Bill Becomes Law - Ontario
- Making Regulations
- Provincial and Territorial
- House of Commons
- LegisINFO (a tool for finding information on legislation currently before Parliament)
- Policy backgrounders