This guide is designed for graduate students in the School of Public Policy and Administration, though anyone doing research on Indigenous Peoples may find help here. If you need further assistance, get in touch!
Code of Ethics
- OCAP - First Nations control data collection processes in their communities as well as how their information is used. Visit the web page of the First Nations Information Governance Centre (FNIGC) to learn more. The University of British Columbia has an excellent guide to Indigenous Research Methodology: Research Ethics.
- TCPS 2 - Chapter 9 - guide to research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada from the Panel on Research Ethics.
USAI Research Framework - developed by the Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres (OFIFC) - a guide to all Aboriginal research projects conducted by the OFIFC and the urban Aboriginal communities, in which the OFIFC is involved.
Use reference materials for background information, or to find good keywords for your search strategy. These are dictionaries, encyclopedias, guides, bibliographies, indexes and abstracts. To find reference materials in the library, in the search box on the library's front page, try searching: public administration and dictionaries, or indigenous policy and bibliographies, etc.
Most databases, whether they are a library catalogue or a specialized database, allow you to search for books, journal articles, and more, with a single search. You can then narrow your results with filters, or more advanced search options.
- Some suggested subject headings or keyword search terms:
- Indigeneous (or Aboriginal or Indian or Native or First Nations or Inuit or Métis)
- Residential School System
- treaty rights
- policy / policies
- Once you've decided which terms are the most useful for your search, combine them in a boolean search. For example:
- activism AND canad* AND "indian act"
- the * will look for alternate endings
- the quotes will keep the words together
- AND/OR will modify a component to narrow or expand your results
- activism AND canad* AND "indian act"
- Some filters to consider applying are: books, or Journals, or Scholarly and/or Peer Review
- You can then narrow your search further by: Publication Date or Discipline or Subject, etc.
- watch for any other words that are being used in your results, for example, the time frame may dictate whether Indigenous or Aboriginal or Indian is being used - search all of them
- the library's Map collection on the first floor has a collection of Indigenous maps, both paper and electronic
- you may choose to develop some skill with GIS and create your own map using your research data, or other data that may be available online
- Map Room - INAC
- National Atlas of Canada - Aboriginal Peoples circa 1630, 1740 and 1823 - Ethnohistorical societies are classified into major linguistic families and mapped using graduated circles (to represent their estimated population).
Borrowing from Other Libraries
- RACER is our online interlibrary loan system. Use it to search for and order books, journal articles, and other items that you can't find in our collection. Journal articles will be sent to you electronically. For more information please see Interlibrary Loans.
- CRL catalog (Center for Research Libraries): Collects research materials not targeted by other North American research institutions. We are a member which allows you to get long-term loans of much of their material.
- WorldCat: Search the library catalogues of 1000's of libraries around the world.
- If you can't find what you need here, you can use Interlibrary Loans to get the article or book, or you can Borrow directly from other libraries.
Adding to our Library's Collection
- You can also send suggestions for purchase directly to me! If our budget allows and the requested item falls within our collection profile, we can usually purchase suggested titles. E-book formats will be purchased whenever possible.
Citing and Citation Management tools
We offer a variety of support options for citing your sources and citation management. If you are not already using a citation management tool, I strongly suggest you look into one now. Most of these tools will also allow you to turn your references into properly formatted bibliographies, and with additional plug-ins they can allow you to easily insert your citations into your papers as you write.
- Citing your sources
- Citation management tools
- Tours and workshops on citation management tools.
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- Citing Data & Statistics
There are many excellent online guides to doing a literature review. Samples include:
- The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting It - University of Toronto
- Academic writing: what is a literature review - Simon Fraser University
- Conducting a Literature Review - Georgetown University Medical Centre
- Literature Review - Deakin University Library
- Learn how to write a review of literature - University of Wisconsin - Madison
- Guidelines for writing a literature review - University of Minnesota, Duluth
You can also search for Literature review guide in the library's search box.
Other aids for writing
- Avoid Plagiarism
- Writing an annotated bibliography
- Write a book review (Queen's University)
- Carleton library's YouTube channel
You can also search for Academic writing or Dissertation writing in the Library's search box.
A sample of relevant databases:
- America History & Life
- Anthropology Plus
- Business Source Complete
- Canadian Business and Current Affairs
- Emerald Management eJournals
- PAIS Index
- Google Scholar - recommended for graduate level research. Access Google Scholar through the library's link when off-campus. It allows immediate access to journals subscribed to by Carleton. Search Tips for Google Scholar
Databases Specific to Indigenous Studies:
- Bibliography of Native North Americans
- First Nations Periodical Index
- Indigenous Studies Portal
- Nunavik Bibliography
- Nunavuk Social History (UBC) Use this index to identify sources and then access them through the Carleton University Library.
For historical digitization projects use
- Aboriginal Research Resources from the University of Saskatchewan
- Internet Archive
- Peels Prairie Provinces
Good to know:
- Use RSS Feeds or Create Alerts to have citations sent to you as a database is updated.
- Within a database, limit your search to scholarly articles when it is appropriate to disregard other resources.
- Never limit to full-text only as we may subscribe to the journal you find from another vendor. Use the Get it! icon to search for the full text when it is not immediately available.
- Look for the option to set up an RSS feed or to Create an Alert. You are then notified when a new entry is added to the database that meets your search criteria.
Use Citation Indexes to find if a particular author and/or paper has been cited by other authors.
- Select Cited Reference Search from just above search box.
- You have the article
- "Street Credentials and Management Backgrounds: Careers of Nonprofit Executives in an Evolving Sector" by Suarez, DF (Suarez, David F.) Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly Volume: 39 Issue: 4 Pages: 696-716 AUG 2010
- Enter the author in cited author box
- Suarez, D (use surname, first initial and truncation symbol)
- Retrieve abbreviation of journal name from list provided, and enter year of publication. NONPROF VOLUNT SEC Q 2010
- From the list, select the article and click on Finish Search - top right.
- Results show the article has been cited 30 times - the most recent in 2018.
- You have the article
- Note the option Searches and alerts to create a citation alert, and be notified of any future citings of this article.
- Choose Author Search from top tool bar.
- Enter author's name and affiliation if known
- Waters, R.D.
- North Carolina State University
- Select, and show documents. All published articles by the author will be listed. Click on article for citing references. "What do Stakeholders Like on Facebook? Examing Public Reactions to Nonprofit Organizations' Informational, Promotional, and Community-Building Messages" by Saxton, G.D., and Waters, R.D.. Journal of Public Relations Research Volume 26, Issue 3, May 2914, Pages 280-299
- Look to the right hand side of the screen - this article has been cited 87 times. Click to 'view all citing documents'.
- Note #2: "Do CSR Messages Resonate? Examing Public Reactions to Firms' CSR Efforts on Social Media" Journal of Business Ethics Volume 155, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages 359-377 has been citied 3 times.
- Enter author's name and affiliation if known
- Remember to see if a citing article has itself been cited!
Tips for effective searching -
If you find one relevant article for your research it can lead to other relevant papers by the following:
- using the databases, look to find all papers & books published by the author or co-authors
- explore the bibliography in the paper for sources
- using Web of Science or Scopus, look for articles that cite the article you found. Remember, some databases will also list citing articles but those lists are limited to the current database. The Web of Science and Scopus are more comprehensive, with coverage from multiple databases.
Journal Citation Reports - Provides evaluation of journals by the impact factor within a given discipline. Limit by subject areas such as
- Public Administration (select JCR Social Sciences Edition)
- Health Policy and Services (Social Sciences Edition)
- Health Care Sciences and Services (select JCR Science Edition)
Grey literature is defined as "information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing" ie. where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body." —ICGL Luxembourg definition, 1997. Expanded in New York, 2004
Once you've used the Search strategies, and tried Databases for finding journal articles above, you may want to see what government, think tanks and other agencies are doing within your subject area.
- Think Tank Search (Harvard University custom search) – think tanks can give an appreciation of government action or inaction in an area
- findpolicy – results from 17 leading think tanks working on foreign policy, in the US and Europe
- Global Go To Think Tank Index - University of Pennsylvania
- Canadian Public Documents Collection - Curated collection from Canadian research institutes, government agencies and university centres working in public policy, health and medical research.
- Conference Board of Canada eLibrary - Browse by topic, select Centre for the North, Centre for Food in Canada, How Canada Performs, etc.
- National Bureau of Economics Research (NBER) Working Papers
- Policy File Index - Indexes research on U.S. public policy with content from think tanks, university research programs, research organizations, etc.
- Social Research and Demonstraton Corporation A non-profit research organization develops, field tests, and evaluates new programs.
Indigenous Media & News Sources
- Indian news collection - digital collection of The Indian News 1954-1982
- First Nations Voice
- CBC news – Indigenous
- Chiefs of Ontario
- First Nations Drum
- Nunatsiaq News
- Aboriginal multi-media society
Search for news from individual nations:
- Nation - news source from the Cree of James Bay
- Algonquins of Pikwàkanagàn First Nation
- Métis Nation of Ontario News
- Ha-Shilth-Sa newspaper
Government Information custom search will search only government agencies. Filter your search by geographic area (try searching multiple regions for your topic, including Intergovernmental Organizations). Look at which agencies are doing research for your topic, going directly to the agency website may offer further areas for investigation. Don't forget to search for countries that have similar circumstances - they may be doing relevant work (eg. Indigenous, health care, etc.). Scroll down in this tab for further help with government searching.
Links and that may be helpful:
- Government of Canada Responsibilities for Domestic and International Human Rights
- Human Rights Bodies (UN Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner)
Note in particular: Country-specific information, Ratifications and Reporting, search the Treaty Body database
- List of Human Rights Issues
- Human Rights Committee -- Report on Canada
- Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples -- Report on Canada
- Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing -- Report on Canada
- Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food -- Report on Canada and End-of-mission statement
- Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related intolerance -- Report on Canada
- United Nations - Indigenous Peoples
- Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations Human Rights System
- International Indian Treaty Council
- Tebtebba Indigenous People’s International Centre for Policy, Research and Education
- doCip Indigenous Peoples’ Center for Documentation, Research and Information
Other sources of Canadian government publications
- Canadian Research Index - includes publications from all levels of government and research bodies.
- Aurora or Voilà (Library and Archives Canada)
- Government of Canada Publications
- Open Government Portal see also Open Information for completed Access to Information summaries, contracts over $10,000, government wide-reporting and regulatory plans
- Older, digitized publications - Canadiana - Heritage, Aboriginal history, late 1700s to mid 1900s
- Library Catalogues
- Aboriginal Canada Portal, Research, Statistics and Maps
- Spending and Jurisdiction for First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples (Library of Parliament)
- Auditor General of Canada - Reports to Parliament
- Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada First Nations Financial Transparency Act
- Library of Parliament
- Accountability for First Nations Funding prepared by Tonina Simeone
- Legislative Summary of Bill C-27: an Act to enhance the financial accountability and transparency of First Nations by Tonina Simeone and Shauna Troniak
- For more information see the Library's subject guide: Public Finance: Budgets, Expenditures, Monetary Policy and Audits
- GreyNet International Directory of organizations in grey literature
- Grey Matters
- Alternative Press Index
- Economics Search Engine (American Economic Association)
- Aboriginal Financial Officers Association - Journal of Aboriginal Management
- Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. Financial Reporting by First Nations Study Group Financial Reporting by First Nations
- The Scow Institute. Political and Fiscal Accountability of Band Governments by Merle Alexander
Search for organizations that represent one nation or multiple nations.
- Kivalliq Inuit Association
- Assembly of First Nations
- Centre for First Nations Governance
- Institute on Governance - explore their research & publications
- Canadian Race Relations Foundation
- Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
Jump to: Health Sources
Treaties, Agreements, Land Claims, Legislation and Commissions
- First Nations Gazette
- Library and Archives Canada
- Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
- Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS)
- Treaties, agreements and negotiations also Publications of Historical Interest and Historical Legislation
- Map Room - with interactive maps
- Canada Treaty Series (Global Affairs Canada)
- Renewing the relationship: key documents
- see also - iPortal - Indigenous Studies Portal - Treaties
- Bill C-7: the First Nations Governance Act – Legislative History
- Framework Agreement on First Nations Land Management
- Indian Act, RSC 1985, c I-5
- Library of Parliament research publications - Indigenous affairs
- Reports from Parliamentary committees - e.g. Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples and the House of Commons Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development are listed in the Library's collection. Other documents connected with the Committees' work are found under Parliamentary Business
- Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
- Specific Claims Tribunal Canada
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada
- National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation
- Alberta -- Indigenous Relations
- British Columbia
- New Brunswick -- Aboriginal Affairs
- Newfoundland and Labrador
- Northwest Territories -- Executive and Indigenous Affairs
- Nunavut -- Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs
- Ontario -- Ministry of Indigenous Affairs
- Quebec -- Sécretariat aux affaires autochtones
- Yukon -- Aboriginal Relations
- Institute on Governance
- Aboriginal community development experts symposium: summary report
- Building governance capacity: the case of potable water in First Nations communities by John Graham and Evlyn Fortier
- Characteristics of a nation-to-nation relationship: Discussion Paper by Marcia Nickerson (February 2017)
- Characteristics of a nation-to-nation relationship: Nation Building and Nations Re-Building prepared by Marcia Nickerson (April 2017)
- Developing Legal frameworks for urban aboriginal governance by Bradford W. Morse
- "Duty to Consult", environmental impacts, and Métis indigenous knowledge by Annette Chretien and Brenda Murphy
- The Duty to Consult with non-status Indians: Mi'kmaq politics and crown responsibilities in Nova Scotia by Bernard Huber
- The Duty to Consult doctrine and representative structures for consultation with Métis communities and non-status Indian communities by Dwight Newman
- Finding a place for race at the policy table: broadening the indigenous education discourse in Canada by Tracy L. Friedel
- First Nation and Métis youth in Northern Alberta: toward a more expansive view of transitions by Alison Taylor, Tracy L. Friedel and Lois Edge
- Improving the education outcomes of aboriginal people living off-reserve: a discussion of delivery models
- In search of common ground: reconciling western-based governance principles and First Nations traditions by Jodi Bruhn
- Indigenous governance in Winnipeg and Ottawa: making space for self-determination by Julie Tomiak
- Keeping the circle strong: social promotion through community networking to strengthen off-reserve aboriginal child welfare by Judy Gillespie
- Reconceiving notions of aboriginal identity by Carrie Bourassa
- Reframing the issues: emerging questions for Métis, Non-Status Indian and Urban Aboriginal policy research
- Revisiting RCAP: towards reconciliation: the future of indigenous governance: symposium discussion paper
- Revisiting RCAP: towards reconciliation: the future of indigenous governance: conference report
- Thoughts on Métis economic development by Gregg Dahl
- Trafficking of aboriginal women and girls in Canada by Anette Sikka
- Land Claims Agreements Coalition
- International - Canada and the United States
- Indian affairs: laws and treaties compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler
- Indigenous Health: First Nations, Métis and Inuit Health Information (University of Manitoba Libraries)
- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
- Canadian Institute for Health Information
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research
- Centre for Indigenous Research and Community-Led Engagement (University of Victoria)
- Health Canada – First Nations and Inuit Health
- Health Council of Canada – Aboriginal Health
- Pan-Canadian Public Health Network
- Public Health Agency of Canada - Aboriginal Peoples
- Public Health Infobase
- Canadian Chronic Disease Indictors
- National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health
- Statistics Canada
- Northwest Territories Health and Social Services
- Nunavut Department of Health Publications
- Yukon Health and Social Services
- Aboriginal Healing Foundation
- Alberta Network Environments for Aboriginal Health Research
- Assembly of First Nations - Health
- Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
- Canadian Indigenous Nurses Association
- University of Manitoba - Centre for Aboriginal Health Education (University of Manitoba)
- Centre for Indigenous People’s Nutrition and Environment (McGill University)
- Centre for Indigenous Research and Community-Led Engagement (University of Victoria)
- Culture & Mental Health Research Unit (McGill University)
- First Nations Child & Family Caring Society of Canada Caring Society - Research database
- First Nations Health Council (B.C.)
- First Nations Information Governance Centre Data Online
- First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission
- Indigenous Physical Activity and Cultural Circle
- Indigenous Physicians Association of Canada
- Institute of Health Economics
- Kanawayhitowin: taking care of each other's spirit
- Native Women's Association of Canada
- Network Environments for Aboriginal Research BC (NEARBC)
- Thunderbird Partnership Foundation - Thunderbird Document Library
- Wellesley Institute - First peoples, second class treatment: the role of rascism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada
Jump to Statistics
What is the Difference Between Data and Statistics?
Data are the raw materials out of which statistics are produced, usually available as digital files for manipulation in statistical software. Statistics are facts or figures that tend to be aggregate counts, totals, sums, or averages.
Use the Data Services searches to find data holdings for Indigenous related data. Census data from 1871 onwards, the National Household Survey, 2011, and the Aboriginal Peoples Survey, are available in <odesi>
Qualitative Research at Carleton University
NVivo is a software package that helps with qualitative data analysis. Check the NVivo guide for information on getting a license, attending a training session and links to online tutorials.
Canada - Federal
- Government Information custom search, will be helpful - add 'statistics' to your search string
- CANSIM II (Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System)
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
- Statistics Canada:
- Aboriginal Peoples key indicators
- Aboriginal Peoples Fact Sheets
- Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance
- Census Datasets - multi-census year data portal providing access to selected datasets from 1991 to 2016 Censuses, as well as the 2011 National Household Survey
- 2011 Census - Aboriginal Languages in Canada
- National Household Survey, 2011
- Population Projections by Aboriginal Identity in Canada, 2006 to 2031
- 2006 Census - Aboriginal Peoples
- 2006 Census - Aboriginal Population Profile
- 2001 Census – Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
- 2001 Census – Analysis Series: Aboriginal Peoples of Canada: a Demographic Profile
- 2001 Census - Aboriginal Population Profiles
- 1996 Census - Nation Tables - Aboriginal (20% data)
- 1991 Census Highlights on Registered Indians: Annotated Tables
- Aboriginal Peoples Survey -- More data available in <odesi>
- 2006 Profile of Aboriginal Children, Youth and Adults
- 2006 Aboriginal Population Profiles for Selected Cities and Communities (based on 2006 Census and 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey)
- 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey: School Experiences of Off-Reserve First Nations Children Aged 6 to 14
- 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
- 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
- Ontario (NHS 2011) and (2006 census)
- Alberta – Population statistics
- British Columbia – Aboriginal Peoples of British Columbia
- New Brunswick - First Nations Communities
- Northwest Territories - 2011 census and NHS
- Nova Scotia - Aboriginal People in Nova Scotia
- Nunavut - Census data also includes NHS
- Quebec - Publications et documentation
- Saskatchewan Demography and census reports and statistics
- Yukon (Yukon First Nation Profiles and Census Reports)
For more general statistics by province, consult the guide to Government Statistics