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The MacOdrum Library is located on the unceded territories of the Algonquin nation. Use this guide to begin your research and consult Martha Attridge Bufton, who can help you find materials to complete your assignments.
Meet Martha Attridge Bufton in the following video.
Pick a research topic
- Read your syllabus (assignment instructions).
- Pick a topic that interests you and meets the assignment instructions.
- Narrow or broaden the scope of your topic so that it is "doable."
- What's scope? Scope refers to the "people, places and things" or "who, what, when and where" that you are studying. For example, Canada or another country? Children or adults? Education or child protection services?
Identify community names
Use a tool such as the First Nations, Metis and Inuit – Indigenous Ontologies (FNMIIO) to identify the names that Indigenous communities prefer and use.
Identify key concepts
Use this worksheet to write out your research topic and identify key ideas.
Do an initial search for academic sources
- Here are some videos to help you pick the right search engines and sources for your assignment.
- Use the CRAP test to evalute the quality of online sources.
- Patriotic Chiefs
Archivist Andrew Ross (Library and Archives Canada) has consulted files on individual photographers, reference works, and tapped the expertise of colleagues for information about Robert Mumford. Unfortunately, it appears that nothing more is known about this photographer. Canadian Patriotic Indian Chiefs is part of a series of five that Mumford registered for copyright in 1915. The others are under MIKAN numbers 3259632, 3259633, 3259634, and 3259635.
- A Peep at the Esquimaux
Popular versus academic sources (what's the difference?) and the peer review process
Searching tips: Truncation and phrase searching
Find peer-reviewed journal articles
- Use the Indigenous Studies Quick Guide for a list of the top five (5) databases.
One of the recommended databases is the Bibliography of Native North Americans. This video introduces you to the database and shows you how to do a simple search.
Additional databases and digital collections for finding peer-reviewed journal articles and other materials
- The Cumulative Index and Nursing Allied Health and Scopus for health-related topics
- Centre for Native American and Indigenous Research (accessing the collection)
- Canadiana Online. A digital library thatidentifies, catalogues, and digitizes documentary heritage—books, newspapers, periodicals, images and nationally-significant archival materials.
- HuriSearch (human rights content)
- Nanisiniq Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) Adventure. Learn from Inuit of Nunavut who have lived on and cared for our land for 1000s of years.
- Native-Land.ca (Mapping territories)
- The National Aboriginal Document Database (resources related to documenting land claims, or for studying independent statutes and acts as well as treaties and court decisions).
- Nunavut Social History (UBC). Use this index to identify sources and then access them through the Carleton University Library.
- Traditional Animal Foods of Indigenous Peoples of Northern North America (McGill University)
- Urban Arboriginal Knowledge Network. The UAKN is a research network of urban Aboriginal communities, policy makers and academics, engaging in community driven research with the goal of contributing to a better quality of life for urban Aboriginal people.
- Consult the Centre for the North for research publications.
The Library collects a variety of games and game-related media. Most can be borrowed from the library by Carleton students, faculty and staff with a valid Library card. The normal loan period is 2 weeks, with 2 renewals.
- Board games
- Console games
- Steam games
- Indigenous games
- Finding and using images: A Carleton University Library guide (including how to cite images in your projects and presentations)
Indigenous heritage collection at Library and Archives Canada (e.g., Windspeaker).
Residential schools (Truth and Reconciliation Commission)
World Intellectual Property Organization: Protecting traditional knowledge
Voices, stories, histories, languages
- Elders' Voices (history and culture of Canada's Northwest Aboriginal peoples through the voices and stories of Aborginal elders).
- Inuit Nunangat Taimannganit. This storytelling project tells the story of Inuit Nunangat (the Inuit homeland in Canada) from time immemorial (taimannganit).
- Language geek: The Language geek website is dedicated to the promotion of indigenous languages, primarily those of North America, by providing the tools which speakers, educators, and learners can use to communicate online or in print.
- Native drums. One in a series of websites designed by Carleton researchers to explore First Nations' musical expressions.
- Native dance. One in a series of websies designed by Carleton researchers to explore First Nations' musical expressions.
- Our elders: interviews with Saskatchewan elders
- Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre
- Selected articles from Saskatchewan Indian Magazine.
- Unikkausivut: Sharing our stories (A collection of more than 60 films from the National Film Board of Canada represent all four Canadian Inuit regions (Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut and Inuvialuit).
- Directory of Open Access Journals
- Open access at Carleton
Recommended peer-review journals in our library collection
- American Indian Culture and Research Journal
- American Indian Quarterly
- Canadian Journal of Native Education
- Canadian Journal of Native Studies
- Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society
- Etudes Inuit. Inuit Studies
- First Peoples Child & Family Review
- Journal of Aboriginal Health
- Journal of American Indian Education
- Native South
- Native Studies Review
- Pimatisiwin: A journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health
- Studies in American Indian Literatures
- Wicazo Sa Review
Some publications are available either only in print or online. Others are available in both formats. Check UlrichsWeb for more information about individual journals.
Indigenous studies-related materials in the Carleton Archives and Research Collections (fifth floor of the library)
- Eskimos and Indians, and the English language. [Sound recording]
- Transitions 2: contemporary Indian and Inuit art of Canada
- The visions and revelations of St. Louis the Métis
- Medicinal plants : an illustrated and descriptive guide to plants indigenous to and naturalized in the United States
- Life with the Esquimaux; a narrative of Arctic experience in search of survivors of Sir John Franklin's expedition
- Schwatka's search: sledging in the Arctic in quest of the Franklin records
The library collection contains a range of maps, which can be in a variety of ways. For example:
- Place names
- Tribal Nations Maps (series)
You can search for these maps using the search option on the library home page, by clicking on Maps in the "Find" column on the home page and entering keywords in the search field or by contacting our Maps & Cartographic specialist (scroll down the page until you find this subject specialist).
Also, there are a number of geographic information system (GIS) resources that are useful and free.
Federal government information
- Find government information online at the library.
- Library and Archives Canada
- Aboriginal Heritage (including residential school records and photographic collections).
- Aboriginal Peoples: Guide to the Records of the Government of Canada (a guide to finding records)
- Canadian Human Rights Commission
- First Nations, Inuit and Aboriginal Health (Health Canada)
- Crown-Indigenous Relations
- Indigenous Services Canada
- Library of Parliament
Commissions and inquiries
- Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
- Specific Claims Tribunal Canada
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission
- Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Inquiry
- Justice Laws (consolidated statutes)
- The Indian Act (Department of Justice website)
- The Indian Act. A discussion paper prepared by Mary Hurley, Library of Parliament.
- The Annotated Indian Act and Aboriginal constitutional provisions
- Consolidated native law statutes, regulations and treaties
- A Matter of Rights. Special Report of the Canadian Human Rights Commission on the Repeal of Section 67 of the Canadian Human Rights Act. October 2005
Other federal legislation
Native Law Centre of Canada. The website includes a link to Canadian Native Law Cases from 1763 - 1978 complied and indexed by researchers at the Native Law Centre at the University of Saskatchewan.
Land claims and treaties
- Historical Indian Treaties (Natural Resources Canada)
- Canada Treaty Policy Directorate
- Canadian Encyclopedia (entry on land claims)
- Government of Saskatchewan (First Nations and Métis Relations) (Treaty Land Entitlement)
- Native American Treaties and Information (University of Colorado at Boulder)
- Treaties with Canada. Native
- Treaty 8 (Library and Archives Canada)
- Ontario E-Laws
- Quebec Laws & Regulations
- Canadian Legal Information Institute (CANLII): for all provinces
- Aboriginal law and legislation (to 1999)
- Australian Legal Information Institute
- Legal Information Institute (American)
- World Legal Information Institute
- Indigenous Legilsation Databank
- Organization of American States (draft of the American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples)
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (read online at the International Work Group for Indigenous Peoples website)
Data and statistics
- First Nations Profiles (includes interactive map)
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada – Basic Departmental Data (1995-2004)
- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada – First Nations Profiles
- Community Well-Being Database
- Research and Statistics
- Aboriginal Peoples
- National Household Survey, Analytical Products 2011: Aboriginal Peoples
- 2006 Census - Aboriginal Peoples
- 2006 Census - Aboriginal Population Profile
- 2001 Census – Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
- 2001 Census – Analysis Series: Aboriginal Peoples of Canada: a Demographic Profile
- 2001 Census - Aboriginal Population Profiles
Census data from 1871 onwards and the National Household Survey, 2011 are available in <odesi>
Aboriginal Peoples' Surveys
- 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey
- 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile
- 2006 Aboriginal Population Profiles for Selected Cities and Communities (based on 2006 Census and 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey)
2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
- Initial Findings
- Initial Release: Supporting Tables
- Supporting Tables 2
- Provincial and Territorial Reports: Off Reserve Aboriginal Population
- Portrait of Aboriginal Children Living in Non-Reserve Areas
- Harvesting and Community Well-Being Among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic
1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
- 1-disability, 2-housing
- Language, Tradition, Health, Lifestyle and Social Issues
- Schooling, Work and Related Activities, Income, Expenses and Mobility
Data from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 1991, 2001 and 2006 are available in <odesi>
Some provinces have highlighted their indigenous populations by drawing on the National Household Survey, 2011 and census data:
- Ontario (NHS 2011) and (2006 census)
- Alberta – Aboriginal Peoples
- British Columbia – Aboriginal Peoples of British Columbia
- Saskatchewan (NHS 2011)
- Yukon (Census 2001, Census 2006).
For more general statistics by province, consult our guide to Canadian government statistics.